Archive for Δεκέμβριος 2007

Time Management

Δεκέμβριος 28, 2007

Πώς πρέπει να διαχειριζόμαστε τον χρόνο μας?Γιατί κάποιοι τα προλαβαίνουν όλα, ενώ άλλοι κοιτάζουν πίσω τους και δεν μπορούν να καταλάβουν πώς πέρασε τόσος καιρός χωρίς να έχουν ξεκινήσει το hobby που θέλαν, το ταξίδι που σχεδίαζαν, το μεταπτυχιακό που χρειαζόταν κτλ κτλ.

Θα προσπαθήσω λοιπόν να σας μεταφέρω κάποιες από τις σκέψεις και τις ιδέες που μου φάνηκαν χρήσιμες, έπειτα από αρκετά χρόνια πειραματισμών με τεχνικές, εργαλεία και πολλών συζητήσεων με φίλους, συμφοιτητές, συναδέλφους μου.

Βήμα 1: First Things First

Σκεφτείτε όλους τους διαφορετικούς ρόλους που έχετε: μπορεί να είστε φοιτητής, γιος, αδερφός, φίλος, σύντροφος, μαθητής (π.χ. μουσικής), αθλητής, υπάλληλος. Ο καθένας μας φοράει ταυτόχρονα περισσότερα από 5-6 διαφορετικά «καπέλα» ρόλων και προσπαθεί έστω και υποσυνείδητα, να ανταποκριθεί σε όλους. Φυσικά, κάποιοι από τους ρόλους μονοπωλούν ανά περιόδους το ενδιαφέρον μας, αλλά αυτό δεν σημαίνει πως επειδή εργάζομαι ή διαβάζω πολλές ώρες κάθε μέρα, θα πρέπει να ξεχάσω τα hobbies μου, ή τους φίλους μου κτλ. Απλά πρέπει να θέσω τις σωστές προτεραιότητες στον κάθε ρόλο.

Πώς θέτω τις προτεραιότητες λοιπόν? Στο παρελθόν έχουν χρησιμοποιηθεί κυρίως τρείς τεχνικές:

1. ABC analysis: Κάνω μια λίστα με όλους τους στόχους που έχω για κάθε ρόλο και έπειτα θέτω Α=υψηλή προτεραιότητα, Β=μεσαία προτεραιότητα C=χαμηλή προτεραιότητα

2. Pareto analysis: Σύμφωνα με την ανάλυση Παρέτο, το 80% των tasks μπορούν να γίνουν στο 20% του χρόνου μας. Το υπόλοιπο 20% των tasks θα απαιτήσουν το 80% του χρόνου μας. Με την μέθοδο αυτή, ξεκινούμε πρώτα με τα tasks που γίνονται γρήγορα και μπορούμε να τα τελειώσουμε στο 20% του χρόνου μας.

3. Fit: Έχω την λίστα με τα tasks που πρέπει να γίνουν και επίσης το ημερολόγιο μου με τον διαθέσιμο χρόνο. Εαν μεταξύ δύο δραστηριοτήτων μου έχω 30 λεπτά διαθέσιμα, θα προσπαθήσω να βάλω ένα task που απαιτεί 30 λεπτά (όχι 5 λεπτά task αλλά ούτε 2 ωρών task) οπότε να έχω το μέγιστο Utilisation του διαθέσιμου χρόνου μου.

Σας προτείνω να δοκιμάσετε μια 4η τεχνική, την οποία πρότεινε ο Stephen Covey στο βιβλίο του «First Things First». Στην τεχνική αυτή, προτείνεται να κάνετε μία κατάταξη των goals (ή tasks που απορρέουν από goals) σε έναν πίνακα «Importance and Urgency».

Σύμφωνα με την τεχνική αυτή δημιουργείς έναν πίνακα με δύο στοιχεία: Urgency και Importance των tasks σου. Όπως καταλαβαίνετε, δημιουργούνται 4 τεταρτημόρια:

Q1: Urgent and Important, Q2: Important Not Urgent, Q3: Urgent Not Important, Q4: Not Important, Not Urgent

Q1: Εδώ μπαίνουν tasks τα οποία πρέπει να γίνουν άμεσα και είναι σημαντικά. Π.χ. έχει χτυπήσει το παιδί μου και πρέπει να το πάω στον γιατρό, πρέπει να διαβάσω 5 ώρες σήμερα γιατί αύριο είναι οι εξετάσεις για το μάθημα κτλ.

Q2: Εδώ μπαίνουν tasks τα οποία είναι σημαντικά αλλά όχι επείγοντα. Εδώ είναι και όλο το κλειδί του time management, μιας και οι περισσότεροι αγνοούν τα tasks αυτής της περιοχής λόγω του χαμηλού urgency. Εδώ είναι το να ξεκινήσω π.χ. ένα νέο hobby, να κανονίσω το τριήμερο που συζητούσαμε με τους φίλους μου, να περάσω να δω τους γονείς/συγγενείς μου, να ξεκινήσω το μεταπτυχιακό μου, κτλ.

Q3: Εδώ είναι όλα τα μικροπράγματα που πρέπει να γίνουν άμεσα αλλά δεν είναι τόσο σημαντικά στην όλη εικόνα των στόχων μου σε οποιονδήποτε ρόλο.

Q4: Εδώ είναι όλα αυτά με τα οποία δεν θα πρεπε κανονικά να ασχολούμαι γιατί δεν είναι ούτε σημαντικά ούτε επείγοντα (π.χ. να σερφάρω παραπάνω στο ίντερνετ, να κάνω τσατ με τις ώρες, κάποια τηλεφωνήματα που δεν χρειάζονται κτλ).

Το σωστό λοιπόν είναι να ασχολούμαστε με τα important items (Q1 και Q2) να κάνουμε delegate σε άλλους τα items του Q3 και να περιορίζουμε στο ελάχιστο τον χρόνο μας στο Q4. Όσο περισσότερο αφιερώνετε τον χρόνο σας στα Q1 και Q2 τόσο περισσότερα θα πετύχετε από αυτά που είναι πραγματικά σημαντικά. Το κλειδί με το Q2 είναι πως απλά πρέπει να αποφασίσετε να τα ξεκινήσετε άμεσα και να μην περιμένετε να περάσει ο χρόνος και να τα αναβάλετε διαρκώς.



Advertisements

The Marketing Plan Section Of The Business Plan

Δεκέμβριος 28, 2007

When writing the business plan, the Marketing Plan section explains how you’re going to get your customers to buy your products and/or services. The marketing plan, then, will include sections detailing your:

  • Products and/or Services and your Unique Selling Proposition
  • Pricing Strategy
  • Sales/Distribution Plan
  • Advertising and Promotions Plan

The easiest way to develop your marketing plan is to work through each of these sections, referring to the market research you completed when you were writing the previous sections of the business plan.

Products and/or Services

This part of the marketing plan focuses on the uniqueness of your product or service, and how the customer will benefit from using the products or services you’re offering. Use these questions to write a paragraph summarizing these aspects for your marketing plan:

What are the features of your product or service?

Describe the physical attributes of your product or service, and any other relevant features, such as what it does, or how your product or service differs from competitive products or services.

How will your product or service benefit the customer?

Remember that benefits can be intangible as well as tangible; for instance, if you’re selling a cleaning product, your customers will benefit by having a cleaner house, but they may also benefit by enjoying better health. Brainstorm as many benefits as possible to begin with, and then choose to emphasize the benefits that your targeted customers will most appreciate in your marketing plan.

What is it that sets your product or service apart from all the rest? In other words, what is your Unique Selling Proposition, the message you want your customers to receive about your product or service that is the heart of your marketing plan? The marketing plan is all about communicating this central message to your customers.

Pricing Strategy

The pricing strategy portion of the marketing plan involves determining how you will price your product or service; the price you charge has to be competitive but still allow you to make a reasonable profit.

The keyword here is «reasonable»; you can charge any price you want to, but for every product or service there’s a limit to how much the consumer is willing to pay. Your pricing strategy needs to take this consumer threshold into account.

The most common question small business people have about the pricing strategy section of the marketing plan is, «How do you know what price to charge?»

Basically you set your pricing through a process of calculating your costs, estimating the benefits to consumers, and comparing your products, services, and prices to others that are similar.

Set your pricing by examining how much it cost you to produce the product or service and adding a fair price for the benefits that the customer will enjoy.

How does the pricing of your product or service compare to the market price of similar products or services?

Explain how the pricing of your product or service is competitive. For instance, if the price you plan to charge is lower, why are you able to do this? If it’s higher, why would your customer be willing to pay more? This is where the «strategy» part of the pricing strategy comes into play; will your business be more competitive if you charge more, less, or the same as your competitors and why?

What kind of ROI (Return On Investment) are you expecting with this pricing strategy, and within what time frame?

Sales and Distribution Plan

Remember, the primary goal of the marketing plan is to get people to buy your products or services. The Sales and Distribution part of the marketing plan details how this is going to happen.

Traditionally there are three parts to the Sales and Distribution section of the marketing plan, although all three parts may not apply to your business.

1) Outline the distribution methods to be used.

How is your product or service going to get to the customer? For instance, will you distribute your product or service through a Web site, through the mail, through sales representatives, or through retail?

What distribution channel is going to be used?

In a direct distribution channel, the product or service goes directly from the manufacturer to the consumer.

In a one stage distribution channel it goes from manufacturer to retailer to consumer. The traditional distribution channel is from manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Outline all the different companies, people and/or technologies that will be involved in the process of getting your product or service to your customer.

What are the costs associated with distribution?

What are the delivery terms?

How will the distribution methods affect production time frames or delivery? (How long will it take to get your product or service to your customer?)

If your business involves selling a product, you should also include information about inventory levels and packaging in this part of your marketing plan. For instance:

How are your products to be packaged for shipping and for display?

Does the packaging meet all regulatory requirements (such as labelling)?

Is the packaging appropriately coded, priced, and complementary to the product?

What minimum inventory levels must be maintained to ensure that there is no loss of sales due to problems such as late shipments and back orders?

2) Outline the transaction process between your business and your customers.

What system will be used for processing orders, shipping, and billing?

What methods of payment will customers be able to use?

What credit terms will customers be offered? If you will offer discounts for early payment or impose penalties for late payment, they should be mentioned in this part of your marketing plan.

What is your return policy?

What warranties will the customer be offered? Describe these or any other service guarantees.

What after-sale support will you offer customers and what will you charge (if anything) for this support?

Is there a system for customer feedback so customer satisfaction (or the lack of it) can be tracked and addressed?

3) If it’s applicable to your business, outline your sales strategy.

What types of salespeople will be involved (commissioned salespeople, product demonstrators, telephone solicitors, etc.)?

Describe your expectations of these salespeople and how sales effectiveness will be measured.

Will a sales training program be offered? If so, describe it in this section of the marketing plan.

Describe the incentives salespeople will be offered to encourage their achievements (such as getting new accounts, the most orders, etc.).

Advertising And Promotion Plan

Essentially the Advertising and Promotion section of the marketing plan describes how you’re going to deliver your Unique Selling Proposition to your prospective customers. While there are literally thousands of different promotion avenues available to you, what distinguishes a successful Advertising and Promotion Plan from an unsuccessful one is focus – and that’s what your Unique Selling Proposition provides.

So think first of the message that you want to send to your targeted audience. Then look at these promotion possibilities and decide which to emphasize in your marketing plan:

Advertising – The best approach to advertising is to think of it in terms of media and which media will be most effective in reaching your target market.

Then you can make decisions about how much of your annual advertising budget you’re going to spend on each medium.

What percentage of your annual advertising budget will you invest in each of the following:

  • the Internet
  • television
  • radio
  • newspapers
  • magazines
  • telephone books/directories
  • billboards
  • bench/bus/subway ads
  • direct mail
  • cooperative advertising with wholesalers, retailers or other businesses?

Include not only the cost of the advertising but your projections about how much business the advertising will bring in.

Sales Promotion – If it’s appropriate to your business, you may want to incorporate sales promotion activites into your advertising and promotion plan, such as:

  • offering free samples
  • coupons
  • point of purchase displays
  • product demonstrations

Marketing Materials – Every business will include some of these in their promotion plans. The most common marketing material is the business card, but brochures, pamphlets and service sheets are also common.

Publicity – Another avenue of promotion that every business should use. Describe how you plan to generate publicity. While press releases spring to mind, that’s only one way to get people spreading the word about your business. Consider:

  • product launches
  • special events, including community involvement
  • writing articles
  • getting and using testimonials

Marketing vs. Sales

Δεκέμβριος 27, 2007
Let’s think about thisquestion for a moment. Without marketing you would not have prospects orleads to follow up with, but yet without a good sales technique and strategy your closing rate may depress you.

Marketing is everything that you do to reach and persuade prospects. The sales process is everything that you do to close the sale and get a signed agreement or contract. Both are necessities to the success of a business. You cannot do without either process. By strategically combining both efforts you will experience a successful amount of business growth. However, by the same token if the efforts are unbalanced it candetour your growth.

Your marketing will consists of the measures you use to reach and persuade your prospects that you are the company for them.

It’s the message that prepares the prospect for the sales. It consists of advertising, public relations, brand marketing, viral marketing, and direct mail.

The sales process consists of interpersonal interaction. It is often done by a one-on-one meeting, cold calls, and networking. It’s anything that engages you with the prospect or customer on a personal level rather than at a distance.

Your marketing efforts begin the process of the eight contacts that studies show it takes to move a prospect or potential client to the close of the sale. If marketing is done effectively you can begin to move that prospect from a cold to a warm lead. When the prospect hitsthe»warm» level it’s much easier for the sales professional to close the sale.

Do you see the cycle?

As you see in my explanation above it takes multiple contacts using both sales and marketing to move the prospect from one level to the next. That is why it is import that you develop a process that combines both sales and marketing. This will enable you to reach prospects at all three levels; cold, warm, and hot. It’s all about balance.

Are you unsure of how to integrate your marketing and sales?

Try this. Take a few moments and divide your prospect lists and database into categories of cold, warm, and hot leads. Then sit down and identify a strategy on how to proceed with each individual group.

For example you could try the following methods of contact:

  • Cold Lead Strategy – Send out a direct mailing or offer them a special promotion
  • Warm Lead Strategy – Try a follow-up call, send out a sales letter, or schedule a special seminar or training session to get all of your warm leads together.

Once you’ve moved your prospect to the «warm» level it’s time to proceed in closing the sale. This will be easier to do if you somehow engage the prospect. You can do this by conducting a one-on-one call, make a presentation, or present a proposal, estimate, or contract.

What if you are uncomfortable with the sales or marketing process?

An alternative that often proves successful is to partner with someone that possess the talents that you feel you lack in. You can do this by creating a partnership, subcontracting, or hiring in that talent.

Remember the key to success in marketing and in sales is balance!

Marketing vs. Advertising

Δεκέμβριος 26, 2007

You will often find that many people confuse marketing with advertising or vice versa. While both components are important they are very different. Knowing the difference and doing your market research can put your company on the path to substantial growth.

Let’s start off by reviewing the formal definitions of each and then I’ll go into the explanation of how marketing and advertising differ from one another:

Advertising: The paid, public, non-personal announcement of a persuasive message by an identified sponsor; the non-personal presentation or promotion by a firm of its products to its existing and potential customers.

Marketing: The systematic planning, implementation and control of a mix of business activities intended to bring together buyers and sellers for the mutually advantageous exchange or transfer of products.

After reading both of the definitions it is easy to understand how the difference can be confusing to the point that people think of them as one-in-the same, so lets break it down a bit.

Advertising is a single component of the marketing process.

It’s the part that involves getting the word out concerning your business, product, or the services you are offering. It involves the process of developing strategies such as ad placement, frequency, etc. Advertising includes the placement of an ad in such mediums as newspapers, direct mail, billboards, television, radio, and of course the Internet. Advertising is the largest expense of most marketing plans, with public relations following in a close second and market research not falling far behind.

The best way to distinguish between advertising and marketing is to think of marketing as a pie, inside that pie you have slices of advertising, market research, media planning, public relations, product pricing, distribution, customer support, sales strategy, and community involvement. Advertising only equals one piece of the pie in the strategy. All of these elements must not only work independently but they also must work together towards the bigger goal. Marketing is a process that takes time and can involve hours of research for a marketing plan to be effective. Think of marketing as everything that an organization does to facilitate an exchange between company and consumer.

http://marketing–research.blogspot.com/

Δεκέμβριος 22, 2007
The past few decades have brought an ever-increasing number of marketing messages our way. Between television, magazines, newspapers, billboards, intentional product placement and celebrity endorsements, the level of advertising has become overwhelming for the average consumer. And as a result, today’s consumers have become desensitized to marketing in general.

This article will explore today’s new realities for advertisers, either online or offline. There’s a new approach in marketing today and it requires a lot more than ever before. Does that mean marketing is becoming prohibitively expensive? Absolutely not. In fact, done properly, modern marketing can establish customer loyalty far beyond what was possible in decades past.

Today’s consumers don’t trust you. In fact, they don’t trust anyone. They’ve been over-marketed since birth and are now encountering over 3000 marketing messages each day, on average. In order to gain their trust, the marketer must do a lot more than simply TELL them the truth. They have to SHOW them the truth.

Indeed, 3000 marketing messages each day is an estimate and it undoubtedly varies from one person to another. But this barrage of messages has left consumers skeptical of unsubstantiated claims. They’ve heard every clever slogan and every incredible product claim. And with today’s email world, they’ve seen every scam in the world. A message alone won’t capture their trust.

Buyers today want proof. They want to see it for themselves. In fact, they want to experience it for themselves too. Buyers today want to sample the goods before making the purchase decision, just like those sampling tables at Costco. They want to benefit from real value before they’re even requested to pull out their wallets.

These intertwined realities have resulted in today’s value-first marketing moniker. This new approach requires sellers of all kinds to sample their products for the world to try, all before requesting a penny in exchange. As a seller, you have to demonstrate your value. You have to demonstrate the benefits of your product. You have to prove your worth before you can expect any revenue coming in.

Nowhere is this more true than the internet. Almost every successful website offers valuable resources to its customers; valuable resources often free of charge. Whether it’s a consumer report, tools to calculate one thing or another, gobs of relevant information or a free sample of the product itself, internet marketers know they have to earn the trust of their customers before selling to them.

The upside of this new approach is that the consumers who give you a try, the consumers who sample your value, can establish a level of trust for you and your products far more powerful than that possible in the 80s or even 90s. And why? Because they experienced your value themselves. They saw it for themselves. And they made their own decision.

Modern marketing is empowering to consumers. It gives them an opportunity to experience the world directly and select those products and services they know will benefit them. The opportunities for customer loyalty are far greater today than ever before and it’s because consumers have the opportunity and the freedom to sample their solutions before they buy them.

ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΕΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ (Greek Marketing Lessons)

Δεκέμβριος 17, 2007
ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΕΣ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΩΝ
ως προς την στάση του καταναλωτή


  • Προϊόντα ευκολίας: αγοράζονται συχνά από τον καταναλωτή, άµεσα και µε τη μικρότερη προσπάθεια (π.χ. τσίχλες).
  • Προϊόντα προτίµησης: σχετίζονται µε µικρή αγοραστική προσπάθεια, αλλά υψηλή προτίµηση µάρκας.
  • Προϊόντα επιλογής: δεν αγοράζονται συχνά, κοστίζουν πολύ περισσότερο απ’ ότι τα προϊόντα ευκολίας και η επιλογή τους γίνεται µετά από συγκριτική αξιολόγηση µεταξύ διαφορετικών µαρκών (π.χ. ρούχα και ηλεκτρικές συσκευές).
  • Εξειδικευµένα προϊόντα: αγοράζονται λόγω τωνµοναδικών χαρακτηριστικών που διαθέτουν που κάνουν τον αγοραστή να τα προτιµά αφιερώνοντας χρόνο όχι για να κάνει σύγκριση µεταξύ εναλλακτικών µαρκών, όπως συµβαίνει µε τα προϊόντα επιλογής, αλλά για να µεταβεί στο εξειδικευµένο κατάστηµα που τα έχει. (π.χ. προϊόντα delicatessen και έργα τέχνης).


GREECE MARKETING – ΟΡΙΣΜΟΣ MARKETING

Δεκέμβριος 17, 2007
GREECE MARKETING – ΟΡΙΣΜΟΣ MARKETING

Marketing είναι μια σειρά από ενέργειες και δραστηριότητες που κάνει μια εταιρεία ώστε να καταγράψει τις επιθυμίες των καταναλωτών, να δημιουργήσει τα προϊόντα και τις υπηρεσίες που θα καλύψουν αυτές τις ανάγκες και να τα πουλήσει αποτελεσματικότερα και αποδοτικότερα από τους ανταγωνιστές της, δίνοντας στον καταναλωτή τη μεγαλύτερη δυνατή αξία.


by www.marketingpower.gr

ΤΟ ΔΙΕΘΝΕΣ ΜΑΡΚΕΤΙΝΓΚ

Δεκέμβριος 16, 2007

Λόγοι για τη διεθνοποίηση μιας επιχείρησης.

  • Η επιρροή του κύκλου ζωής του προϊόντος
  • Ο ανταγωνισμός σε μια επιλεγμένη αγορά- στόχο
  • Χρησιμοποίηση της πλεονάζουσας παραγωγικής ικανότητας
  • Η γεωγραφική διαφοροποίηση
  • Δυναμικό πληθυσμού και αγοραστικής δύναμης
  • Στρατηγικό ανταγωνιστικό πλεονέκτημα


Οι δυνάμεις του περιβάλλοντος της Διεθνούς Αγοράς

  • Πολιτιστικές δυνάμεις
  • Κοινωνικές δυνάμεις
  • Οικονομικές δυνάμεις
  • Πολιτικές και νομικές δυνάμεις

Τρόποι διείσδυσης στις Διεθνείς Αγορές

o Έμμεση εξαγωγή κατά την οποία οι πωλήσεις γίνονται σε έναν ενδιάμεσο ο οποίος στη συνεχεία προβαίνει στη μεταπώληση σε πελάτες στο εξωτερικό.

o Άμεση εξαγωγή κατά την οποία η εταιρία πωλεί άμεσα σε πελάτες στο εξωτερικό.

o Παραγωγή στο εξωτερικό η οποία μπορεί να πάρει τη μορφή μιας μικτής επιχείρησης (joint venture) ή της εγκατάστασης στο εξωτερικό μιας θυγατρικής εταιρίας πλήρους ιδιοκτησίας.

Οι τρεις βασικές προσεγγίσεις για την ανάπτυξη διεθνών στρατηγικών προϊόντος και προβολής είναι:

· Η στρατηγική του Μάρκετινγκ για μια αδιαφοροποίητη (τυποποιημένη) παγκόσμια αγορά.

· Η στρατηγική του Μάρκετινγκ για μια διαφοροποιημένη παγκόσμια αγορά.

· Η στρατηγική επινόησης νέου προϊόντος

by www.marketingpower.gr

Google Adwords Overview

Δεκέμβριος 11, 2007

Google Adwords is the sponsored link system operated by Google. It is Google’s chief source of income.

Advertisers choose keyword phrases that they want to advertise «on» and with proper design and funding, their ads will appear on the Google search engine results page (SERP) as well as partners, such as AOL.

With Google Adwords

  • Your price is automatically lowered to one cent more than your closest competitor.
  • No one can lock in the top position. User click through rates and CPC help determine where your ad is shown.
  • Google offers a unique set of tools to forecast your budget and select target keywords.
  • You can target your ads to users in a specific country or only to speakers of a specific language.
  • By developing effective landing pages, you can receive improved listings at less cost than your less savvy customers.
  • You can monitor your competition’s activity.

Mystery shopping

Δεκέμβριος 9, 2007
Mystery shopping

Αύξηση των πωλήσεων μέσω καλύτερης εξυπηρέτησης και ικανοποίησης του πελάτη. To MYSTERY SHOPPING είναι ένα απαραίτητο εργαλείο της Διοίκησης και του Management , που αποβλέπει στην αντικειμενική μέτρηση και αξιολόγηση του τρόπου λειτουργίας της εταιρίας με απώτερο σκοπό , τόσο τον προσδιορισμό των αδυναμιών και την άμεση βελτίωση των , όσο και την λήψη σωστών στρατηγικών αποφάσεων. Η μέθοδος του MYSTERY SHOPPING βασίζεται στην επίσκεψη ειδικά εκπαιδευμένων ατόμων στο χώρο πώλησης /παροχής (προϊόντων η υπηρεσιών) που συμπεριφέρονται σαν υποψήφιοι πελάτες ‘shoppers’. Κατά την διάρκεια της επίσκεψης οι ‘shoppers’ καταγράφουν βάση συγκεκριμένου ερωτηματολογίου και αξιολογούν κάθε σημείο και περιοχή ενδιαφέροντος για την εταιρία